Literature Review

Water Resources in Pakistan (General Literature)
  • BGS (2001): Groundwater quality: Pakistan. British Geological Survey, Nottingham. [***]
  • Laghari, A.N., Vanham, D. and Rauch, W. (2012): The Indus basin in the framework of current and future water resources management. Hydrological Processes 29(11): 2613-2627. [**]
  • Muhammad Asiam Tahir, Muhammad Akram, Faizan ul Hasan, Muhammad Faroque (2011): Technical Assessment Survey. Report of Water Supply Schemes. Punjab Province (Part-I). Provision of Safe Drinking Water. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources. Ministry of Science and Technology.
  • Qureshi, A. S.; McCornick, P. G.; Sarwar, A.; Sharma, B. R. (2009): Challenges and Prospects of Sustainable Groundwater Management in the Indus Basin, Pakistan. Water Resources Management 24(8), 1551-1569. [***]
  • Qureshi, A.S., McCornick P.G., Qadir M., Aslam Z. (2008): Managing salinity and waterlogging in the Indus basin in Pakistan. Agricultural Water Management 95, 1-10. [***]
  • WWF (2014): Situation analysis of the water resources of Lahore. WWF-Pakistan. [****]
Cotton Cultivation and Productivity
  • Ahmad, M. D., H. Turral, et al. (2009). Diagnosing irrigation performance and water productivity through satellite remote sensing and secondary data in a large irrigation system of Pakistan. Agricultural Water Management 96(4): 551-564.
  • Ahmad, S. & Raza, I. (2014) Optimisation of management practices to improve cotton fibre quality under irrigated arid environment. Journal of Food & Environment. 12 (2): 609-613.
  • Ahmad, S., Abbas, Q., Abbas, G., Fatima, Z., Naz, S., Younis, H., Khan, R. J., et al. (2017) Quantification of Climate Warming and Crop Management Impacts on Cotton Phenology. Plants. doi:10.3390/plants6010007
  • Ahmad, S., Raza, I. & Ali, H. (2014) Response of cotton crop to exogenous application of glycinebetaine under sufficient and scarce water conditions 37, 407–415. doi:10.1007/s40415-014-0092-z.
  • Allen, R.G.; Pereira, L.S.; Raes, D.; Smith, M. (1998): Crop evapotranspiration – Guidelines for computing crop water requirements – FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56; FAO Rome, Italy.
  • Amin, A., Nasim, W., Mubeen, M., Nadeem, M., Ali, L., Hammad, H. M., Sultana, S. R., et al. (2017) Optimizing the phosphorus use in cotton by using CSM-CROPGRO-cotton model for semi-arid climate of Vehari-Punjab, Pakistan. Environmental Science and Pollution Research.24: 5811-5823 doi:10.1007/s11356-016-8311-8.
  • Amin, A., W. Nasim, M. Mubeen, A. Ahmad, M. Nadeem, P. Urich, S. Fahad, S. Ahmad, A. Wajid, F. Tabassum, H. M. Hammad, S. R. Sultana, S. Anwar, S. k. Baloch, A. Wahid, C. J. Wilkerson and G. Hoogenboom. (2017). Simulated CSM-CROPGRO-cotton yield under projected future climate by SimCLIM for (May). Agricultural System doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2017.05.010
  • Ashraf A., Ahmad Z. (2008): Regional groundwater flow modelling of Upper Chaj Doab of Indus Basin Pakistan using finite element model (Feflow) and geoinformations. Geophy. J. Int. 173, 17-24.
  • Ashraf, V. S., Abbaspour, C. K. et al. (2017). Modeling Crop Water Productivity Using a Coupled SWAT–MODSIM Model. Water 9(3).
  • Asif, M. (2013): Climatic Change, Irrigation Water Crisis and Food Security in Pakistan. Thesis. Uppsala University, Sweden. 39pp.
  • Atzberger, C. (2013): Advances in remote sensing of agriculture: Context description, existing operational monitoring systems and major information needs. Remote Sensing 5 (2): 949–81.
  • Aus der Beek, T. (2012): Large scale modelling of irrigation water use and its impact on water resources. Dissertation. Universität Heidelberg, 145p.
  • Awan, U.K., Tischbein, B., Conrad, C., Martius, C., Hafeez, M. (2011): Remote Sensing and Hydrological Measurements for Irrigation Performance Assessments in a Water User Association in the Lower Amu Darya River Basin. Water Resources Management 25: 2467-2485.
  • Awan, U.K.; Liaqat, U.W.; Choi, M.; Ismaeel, A. (2016): A SWAT modeling approach to assess the impact of climate change on consumptive water use in Lower Chenab Canal area of Indus basin. Hydrology Res. Jan 2016; DOI: 10.2166/nh.2016.102 .
  • Bastiaanssen W.G.M., Menenti, M., Feddes, R.A., Holtslag, A.A.M. (1998): A remote sensing surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL). 1. Formulation. J. Hydrol. 212–213, 198–212.
  • Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., Molden, D. J., & I.W. Makin (2000): Remote sensing for irrigated agriculture : examples from research and possible applications. Agricultural Water Management, 46 (2): 127-155.
  • Bautista, E., Schlegel, J.L., Strelkoff, T.S. 2012. WinSRFR 4.1 User manual. USDA-ARS Arid Land Agricultural Research Center, Maricopa, AZ, USA
  • Berger, Markus; van der Ent, Ruud; Eisner, Stephanie; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias (2014): Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE): considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting. Environmental science & technology 48 (8), pp. 4521–4528. DOI: 10.1021/es404994t.
  • Bos, M. G., Burton, M. A., & Molden, D. J. (eds.) (2005):  Irrigation and drainage performance assessment: practical guidelines. CABI Pub.
  • Cai, X. (2010). An Assessment of Crop Water Productivity in the Indus and Ganges River Basins: Current Status and Scope for Improvement. IWRM Research Report 140. [**]
  • Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, Arjen; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.: The water footprint of cotton consumption. In : Value of Water Research Report Series, No. 18, 6-1-6-16. [***]
  • Conrad C. Dech S.W., Hafeez M., Lamers, J.P.A., Tischbein B. (2013): Remote sensing and hydrological measurement based irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta, Central Asia. Phys. Chem. Earth 61-62, 52-62.
  • Conrad C., Dech S., Dubovyk O., Fritsch S., Klein D., Löw F., Schorcht G., Zeidler J. (2014): Derivation of temporal windows for accurate crop discrimination in heterogeneous croplands of Uzbekistan using multitemporal RapidEye images, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 103, 63-74.
  • Conrad C., Lamers J.P.A., Ibragimov N., Löw F., Martius C. (2016): Analysing irrigated crop rotation patterns in arid Uzbekistan by the means of remote sensing: A case study on post-Soviet agricultural land use, Journal of Arid Environments 124, 150-159.
  • Conrad, C., Rahmann, M., Machwitz, M., Stulina, G., Paeth, H., and Dech, S. (2013a) Satellite based calculation of spatially distributed crop water requirements for cotton and wheat cultivation in Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan, Global and Planetary Change 110, Part A, 88 – 98.
  • CSO (2013). “The Corporate Water Gauge. Available at http://www.sustainableorganizations.org
  • Deho, Z. A., Laghari, S., Abro, S. & Khanzada, S. D. (2012) Effect of Sowing Dates and Picking Intervals at Boll Opening PercentAT , Yield and fiber Quality of Cotton Cultivars 31(3), 288–293.
  • FAO (2013). “FAOSTAT. Available at http://faostat.fao.org/
  • FAO-AQUASTAT-Database. Available from: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm
  • Forkuor, G.; Conrad, C.; Thiel, M.; Ullmann, T. & Zoungrana, E. (2014): Integration of optical and synthetic aperture radar imagery for improving crop mapping in northwestern Benin, West Africa. Remote Sensing. 6 (7): 6472-6499.
  • Forkutsa I., Sommer R., Shirokova Y., Lamers, J.P.A., Kienzler K., Tischbein B., Martius C., Vlek P.L.G. (2009a): Modeling irrigated cotton with shallow groundwater in the Aral Sea Basin of Uzbekistan: I. Water dynamics. – Irrigation Science 27(4), 331-346.
  • Forkutsa I., Sommer R., Shirokova Y., Lamers, J.P.A., Kienzler K., Tischbein B., Martius C., Vlek P.L.G. (2009b): Modeling irrigated cotton with shallow groundwater in the Aral Sea Basin of Uzbekistan: II. Soil salinity dynamics. – Irrigation Science 27(4), 319-330.
  • Fritsch S., Conrad C., Dürbeck T. (2015); Mapping marginal land in Khorezm using GIS and remote sensing tech-niques. In J. P. A. Lamers, Khamzina, A., Rudenko, I., & PLG, V. (Eds.), Restructuring land allocation, water use and agricultural value chains Technologies, policies and practices for the lower Amudarya region. (pp.167-178). Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
  • Fritsch, S. (2013): Spatial and temporal patterns of crop yield and marginal land in the Aral Sea Basin: derivation by combining multi-scale and multi-temporal remote sensing data with a light use efficiency model, Dissertation, Universität Würzburg, 222pp.
  • Gallego, J.F., Craig, M., Michaelsen, J., Bossyns, B. & Fritz, S. (2008): Best Practices for Crop Area Estimation with Remote Sensing. Ispra: Joint Research Center: pp 14.
  • Ghoraba, S.M. (2015): Hydrological modeling of the Simly Dam watershed (Pakistan) using GIS and SWAT model, Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol.54 (3), 583-594, ISSN 1110-0168, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2015.05.018
  • Iqbal, M.S.; Hofstra, N. (2015): Evaluating floods in the Kabul River basin of Pakistan with the SWAT model. Poster. SWAT conference Sardinia, Italy. June 22-26.2015.
  • Kahlown, M.A., Raoof, et al. (2007): Water use efficiency and economic feasibility of growing rice and wheat with sprinkler irrigation in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. Agricultural Water Management 87(3): 292-298.
  • Khan, M. A., Bukhari, S. A. H., Nafees, M., Iqbal, M. & Jamil, M. (2010) Comparative agronomic evaluation of different cotton varieties under desert climate. AAB BIOFLUX 2(1), 2008–2011.
  • Knöfel (2016): Optimierung der Energiebilanzmodellierung zur Ableitung der Evapotranspiration durch Entwicklung eines physikalischen Bodenwärmestromansatzes am Beispiel der Region Khorezm (Usbekistan).
  • Laghari, K. Q., Lashari, B. K. & Memon, H. M. (2010) Water Use Efficiency of Cotton and Wheat Crops at Various Management Allowed Depletion in Lower Indus Basin. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 29(4): 661–672.
  • Length, F. (2011) Determination of the yield response factor for field crop deficit irrigation. African Journal of Agricultural research, 6(16): 3700–3705. doi:10.5897/AJAR11.131
  • Liaquat, U.W., Choi, M. et al. (2015): Spatio-temporal distribution of actual evapotranspiration in the Indus Basin Irrigation System. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16: 1063-1083. [***]
  • Lobell, D.B. (2013): The use of satellite data for crop yield gap analysis. Field Crops Research, 143: 56–64.
  • Lu, D., & Weng, Q. (2007): A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28 (5): 823–870.
  • Moulin, S., Bondeau, A., & R. Delecolle (1998): Combining agricultural crop models and satellite observations: from field to regional scales. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19 (6): 1021–1036.
  • Muharam, F. M., Bronson, K. F. & Ritchie, G. L. (2014) Inter-relationships of cotton plant height, canopy width, ground coverand plant nitrogen status indicators. Field crops Resaerch 169:58-69.
  • Nadia, S. D. & Wageda, A. E. F. (2015) Effect of delaying planting date on yield, fiber and yarn quality properties in some cultivars and promising crosses of egyptian cotton. American-Eurasian J.Agric,&Ebviron, Sci., 15(5), 754–763. doi:10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2015.15.5.12623
  • Rodriguez-Galiano, V. F., Chica-Olmo, M., Abarca-Hernandez, F., Atkinson, P. M. & Jeganathan, C. (2012): Random Forest Classification of Mediterranean Land Cover Using Multi-Seasonal Imagery and Multi-Seasonal Texture. Remote Sensing of Environment 121: 93–107.
  • Sarwar A. (1999). Developing of a Conjunctive Use Model, an Integrated Approach of Surface and Groundwater Modelling using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Mitteilungen des Lehrstuhls für Landwirtschaftlichen Wasserbau und Kulturtechnik der Universität Bonn, Heft 8
  • Sarwar, A. and C. Perry (2002). Increasing water productivity through deficit irrigation: evidence from the Indus plains of Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage 51(1): 87-92.
  • Sarwar, A. and H. Eggers (2006). Development of a conjunctive use model to evaluate alternative management options for surface and groundwater resources. Hydrogeology Journal 14(8): 1676-1687.
  • Sarwar, A. and R. A. Feddes (2000). Evaluating Drainage Design Parameters for the Fourth Drainage Project, Pakistan by using SWAP Model: Part II – Modeling Results. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 14(4): 281-299.
  • Shabbir, A., Arshad, M., Bakhsh, A., Usman, M., Shakoor, A., Ahmad, I., Ahmad, A. 2012. Apparent and real water productivity for cotton wheat zone of Punjab, Pakistan. Pak., J. Agric., Sci., 49(3):357-363. [***]
  • Shakir, A. S., N. M. Khan, et al. (2010). Canal water management: Case study of upper Chenab Canal in Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage 59(1): 76-91. [***]
  • Shi, Z.; Rücker, G. R.; Müller, M.; Conrad, C.; Ibragimov, N.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Martius, C.; Strunz, G.; Dech, S. & Vlek, P. L. G. (2007): Modeling of Cotton Yields in the Amu Darya River Floodplains of Uzbekistan Integrating Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing and Minimum Field Data. Agronomy Journal, 99: 1317-1326
  • Soth, Jens; Grasser, Christian; Salerno, Romina; Philipp; Thalmann (1999): The impact of cotton on fresh water resources and ecosystems. A preliminary synthesis. Edited by WWF.
  • Steduto, P., Hsiao, T.C., Fereres, E., Raes, D. 2012. Crop Yield Response to Water. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 66. FAO. Rome
  • Sui, R., Fisher, D. K. & Reddy, K. N. (2013). Cotton yield assessment using plant height mapping system. journal of agricultural sciences 5(1), 23–31. doi:10.5539/jas.v5n1p23
  • Tischbein, B., Manschadi, A.M., Conrad, C., Hornidge, A.-K., Bhaduri, A., Ul Hassan, M., Lamers, J.P.A., Awan, U.K., Vlek, P.L.G. 2013. Adapting to water scarcity: constraints and opportunities for improving irrigation management in Khorezm, Uzbekistan. Water Science & Technology: Water Supply 13, 337-348.
  • Usman M. (2012): Apparent and real water water productivity for cotton-wheat zone of Punjab, Pakistan, Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 49(3):357-363, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260791690_Apparent_and_real_water_water_productivity_for_cotton-wheat_zone_of_Punjab_Pakistan
  • Usman M. et al. (2015): Estimation of distributed seasonal net recharge by modern satellite data in irrigated agricultural regions of Pakistan. Environmental Earth Sciences 74(2). DOI: 10.1007/s12665-015-4139-7
  • Usman M., Ahmad, A., Ahmad, S., Arshad, M., Khaliq, T., Wajid, A., Hussain, K., Nasim, W., Chattha, T. M., Trethowan, R., Hoogenboom, G. (2009). Development and application of crop water stress index for scheduling irrigation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under semiarid environment. J. Food & Env., 7(3&4):386-391. [***]
  • Usman M., Arshad, M., Ahmad, A., Ahmad, N., Zia-ul-Haq, M., Wajid, A., Khaliq, T., Naseem, W., Hasnain, Z., Ali, H., Ahmad, S. (2010) Lower and upper baselines for crop water stress index and yield of Gossypium Hirsutum L. under variable irrigation regimes in irrigated semiarid environment. Pak., J. Bot., 42(4): 2541-2550. [***]
  • Usman M., Liedl, R.  et al. (2015). Spatio-temporal estimation of consumptive water use for assessment of irrigation system performance and management of water resources in irrigated Indus Basin, Pakistan. Journal of Hydrology 525: 26-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.03.031. [***]
  • Usman M., Liedl, R. et al. (2015). Land use/land cover classification and its change detection using multi-temporal MODIS NDVI data. Journal of Geographical Sciences 25(12): 1479-1506. DOI: 10.1007/s11442-015-1247-y [***]
  • Wajid, A., Ahmad, A., Khaliq, T., Alam, S., Hussaun, A., Hussain, K., Naseem, W., et al. (2010). Quantification of growth, yield and radiation use efficiency of promising cotton cultivars. Pak, J. Agri, Sci., 42(3): 1703–1711.
  • Wolters W., Bhutta M.N. (1997): Need for integrated irrigation and drainage management, example of Pakistan. In: Proceedings of the ILRI Symposium, Towards Integrated Irrigation and Drainage Management, Wageningen.
  • Zhou S., Rücker G.R., Müller M., Conrad C., Ibragimov N., Lamers J.P.A., Martius C., Strunz G., Dech S., Vlek P.L.G. (2007): Modeling of Cotton Yields in the Amu Darya River Floodplains of Uzbekistan Integrating Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing and Minimum Field Data, Agronomy Journal 99, 1317-1326.
  • Zhu, Z., Bi, J., Pan, Y., Ganguly, S., Anav, A., Xu, L. & R. Myneni (2013): Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI)3g and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)3g Derived from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) for the Period 1981 to 2011. Remote Sensing, 5(2): 927–948.
Ground Water / Ground Water Abstraction
  • Ahmad, M.-u.-D., W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, et al. (2005). A new technique to estimate net groundwater use across large irrigated areas by combining remote sensing and water balance approaches, Rechna Doab, Pakistan. Hydrogeology Journal 13(5): 653-664. [***]
  • Ahmad, M.; Rafiq, M.; Akram, W.; Tasneem, M. A.; Ahmad, N.; Iqbal, N.; Sajjad, M. I. (2002): Assessment of aquifer system in the city of Lahore, Pakistan using isotopic techniques, pp. 109–133.
  • Arshad, M., Ahmad, N., Usman, M. (2009) Simulating seepage from branch canal under crop, land and water relationships. Int., J., Agric., & Bio., 11(5): 529-534. [***]
  • Arshad, M. (2004) Contribution of irrigation conveyance system components to the recharge potential in rechna doab under lined and unlined options. Doctoral thesis. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
  • Alam, Naveed (2014): Sustainable conjunctive use of groundwater for additional irrigation. Dissertation. TU Delft, Netherlands. Available online at http://repository.tudelft.nl. [***]
  • Barthel, Roland; Banzhaf, Stefan (2015): Groundwater and surface water interaction at the regional-scale – A review with focus on regional integrated models. In Water Resource Manage 23 (1), pp. 213–214. DOI: 10.1007/s10040-014-1215-0.
  • Cheema, M. J. M., Immerzeel, W. W. et al. (2014). Spatial Quantification of Groundwater Abstraction in the Irrigated Indus Basin. Groundwater 52(1): 25-36.
  • Hassan, G. Z. and M. N. Bhutta (1996): A water balance model to estimate groundwater recharge in Rechna doab, Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 10(4): 297-317. [**]
  • Kanwal, S.; Gabriel, H. F.; Mahmood, K.; Ali, R.; Haidar, A.; Tehseen, T. (2015): Lahore’s groundwater depletion – a review of the aquifer susceptibility to degradation and its consequences. In Technical Journal, University of Engineering and Technology (UET) Taxila, Pakistan 20 (1-2015), pp. 26–38. Available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274433847. [**]
  • Kazmi, S. I., M. W. Ertsen, et al. (2012). The impact of conjunctive use of canal and tube well water in Lagar irrigated area, Pakistan. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 47–48: 86-98. [**]
  • Tripathi, A., Mishra, A. K. et al. (2016). Impact of Preservation of Subsoil Water Act on Groundwater Depletion: The Case of Punjab, India. Environmental Management 58(1): 48-59.
  • Usman, M., Liedl, R., Kavousi, A. (2015). Estimated of distributed seasonal net recharge by modern satellite data irrigated agricultural regions of Pakistan. Envi., Earth Sci., DOI: 10.1007/s1266501541397. [***]
  • Qureshi, Asad Sarwar; McCornick, Peter G.; Sarwar, A.; Sharma, Bharat R. (2010): Challenges and Prospects of Sustainable Groundwater Management in the Indus Basin, Pakistan. In Water Resources Management 24 (8), pp. 1551–1569. DOI: 10.1007/s11269-009-9513-3. [***]
Climate Change / Hydrological Regimes
  • Akhtar, M., N. Ahmad, et al. (2008). The impact of climate change on the water resources of Hindukush–Karakorum–Himalaya region under different glacier coverage scenarios. Journal of Hydrology 355(1–4): 148-163.
  • Archer, D. (2003). Contrasting hydrological regimes in the upper Indus Basin. Journal of Hydrology 274(1–4): 198-210.
  • Fowler, H. J. and D. R. Archer (2006). Conflicting Signals of Climatic Change in the Upper Indus Basin. Journal of Climate 19(17): 4276-4293.
  • Nepal, S. and A. B. Shrestha (2015). Impact of climate change on the hydrological regime of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins: a review of the literature. International Journal of Water Resources Development 31(2): 201-218.
Textile Industry: Water Efficiency and Wastewater
  • FiW (2016): Wastewater Treatment for the Textile Industries in Pakistan. Guidebook commissioned by GIZ, Eschborn.
  • Schönberger H., Schäfer T. (2003): Beste verfügbare Techniken in Anlagen der Textilindustrie. UBA-Texte 13/03.
  • WWF (2014b): Training Manual on BWMPs in Textile Sector of Pakistan. WWF-Pakistan.
Water Footprint
  • Allan, J. A. (1998). “Virtual water: a strategic resource, global solutions to regional deficits.” Ground Water 36(4): 545-546.[***]      
  • Berger M., Finkbeiner M. (2010): Water Footprinting: How to Address Water Use in Life Cycle Assessment? Sustainability 2 (4), 919-944. [****]
  • Berger M., Finkbeiner M. (2013): Methodological challenges in volumetric and impact oriented water footprints. Journal of Industrial Ecology 17 (1), 79-89. [**]
  • Berger M., van der Ent R., Eisner S., Bach V., Finkbeiner M. (2014): Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) – considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting. Environmental Science and Technology 48 (8), 4521-4528. [**]
  • Berger, M  et al (2017):”The WULCA consensus characterization model for water scarcity footprints: assessing impacts of water consumption based on available water remaining (AWARE)”,
    International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, DOI 10.1007/s11367-017-1333-8 [****]
  • Boulay, A.-M., et al. (2011b). “Regional Characterization of Freshwater Use in LCA: Modelling Direct Impacts on Human Health.” Environmental Science and Technology 45(20): 8948–8957. [**]
  • Chapagain A.K., Hoekstra A.Y., Savenije H.H.G., Gautam R. (2006): The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries. Ecol. Econ. 60, 186-203. [****]
  • Döring, R., Heiland, S., Tischer, N. (2004) Kommunale Nachhaltigkeitsindikatorensystem in Deutschland – Zum aktuellen Stand von Entwicklung und Anwendung. Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung, 73 (1), 95-111. [*]
  • Ecoinvent centre (2015). “Ecoinvent 3 LCI databse. Available at http://www.ecoinvent.ch [*]
  • Flörke M., Kynast E., Bärlund I., Eisner S., Wimmer F., Alcamo J. (2013): Domestic and industrial water uses of the past 60 years as a mirror of socio-economic development: A global simulation study. Global Environmental Change 23(1), 144-156. [*]
  • Franke, N. and Mathews, R. (2013a). “C&A’s Water Footprint Strategy: Cotton Clothing Supply Chain, Water Footprint Network, Enschede, Netherlands.  [****]
  • Hanafiah, M. M., et al. (2011). “Characterization Factors for Water Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Based on Freshwater Fish Species Extinction.” Environmental Science and Technology 45(12): 5272–5278. [**]
  • Hoekstra, A. Y. and M. M. Mekonnen (2012). “Reply to Ridoutt and Huang: From water footprint assessment to policy.” Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(22): E1425. [*]
  • Hoekstra, A. Y. and M. M. Mekonnen (2012). “The water footprint of humanity.” Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(9): 3232-3237. [**]
  • Hoekstra, A. Y. and P. Q. Hung (2002). Virtual Water Trade: A Quantification of Virtual Water Flows between Nations in Relation to International Crop Trade. Value of Water Research Report Series 11. Delft, The Netherlands, UNESCO-IHE. [**]
  • Hoekstra, A. Y., et al. (2011). The Water Footprint Assessment Manual – Setting the Global Standard. London, Washington, DC, earthscan. [***]
  • ISO 14044 (2006). Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines (ISO 14044:2006). International Organisation for Standardisation. Geneva, Switzerland. [**]
  • ISO 14046 (2014). Water footprint – principles, requirements and guidance International Organization for Standardization. Geneva, Switzerland. [****]
  • Kounina, A., et al. (2013). “Review of methods addressing freshwater use in life cycle inventory and impact assessment.” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 18(3): 707-721. [***]
  • Mathews, R., Zhang, G., Safaya S. (2016). “Toward sustainable water use in the cotton supply chain. A comprehensive assessment of the water footprint of agricultural proctices in India.” Water Footprint Network, Enschede, Netherlands.[****]
  • Mekonnen M.M., Hoekstra A.Y. (2011): The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 15, 1577–1600. [**]
  • Morse, S. (2013): Bottom Rail on Top: The Shifting Sands of Sustainable Development Indicators as Tools to Assess Progress. Sustainability 5, 2421-2441.  [*]
  • Motoshita, M., et al. (2011). “Development of impact factors on damage to health by infectious diseases caused by domestic water scarcity.” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 16(1): 65-73. [**]
  • Motoshita, M., et al. (2014). “Consistent characterisation factors at midpoint and endpoint relevant to agricultural water scarcity arising from freshwater consumption.” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment in press, DOI 10.1007/s11367-014-0811-5. [**]
  • Núñez, N. et al. (2016). “Critical analysis of life cycle impact assessment methods addressing consequences of freshwater use on ecosystems and recommendations for future method development“.Int J Life Cycle Assess (2016) 21:1799–1815, DOI 10.1007/s11367-016-1127-4 [***]
  • Pfister S., Koehler A., Hellweg S. (2009): Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption in LCA. Environmental Science and Technology 43(11), 4098-4104. [***]
  • Pfister, S. and S. Hellweg (2009). “The water ‘‘shoesize’’ vs. footprint of bioenergy.” Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(35): E93-E94. [*]        
  • Pfister, S., et al. (2011). “Projected water consumption in future global agriculture: Scenarios and related impacts.” Science of the Total Environment 409: 4206-4216. [***]
  • Quantis (2013). “The Quantis Water Database. Available at http://www.quantis-intl.com/waterdatabase.php [*]
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